عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
satire is one of the prominent and tangible subjects in Rubaiyat (quatrains) of Baba Afzal al-Din Kashani. Using a soft and delightful tone and avoiding arrogance and quibble, he created eloquent satires enfolded in his mellifluous poems.
In his satires, Baba Afzal used many figures of speech, especially wordplay, paradox, repetition, and pun. In creating satires, he used proverbs and has composed poems some of which has turned into commonly used proverbs in peoples’ everyday speech.
He benefited from the teachings of the Holy Qur'an in most of his satires, and conveyed valuable Qur'anic messages in the form of various satires. The Rubaiyat of Baba Afzal can mainly be considered as a free and ironic translation of the Qur'an aligned with divine commandments.
In the present study, Baba Afzal's satires are divided into six group: 1. literary satires; 2. social satires; 3. historical satires; 4. wisdom satires; 5. religious and mystical satires; 6. philosophical satires.
What Baba Afzal is mostly concerned about which set the grounds for his engaging satires are religious and mystical concepts. After that, the social satires have a high frequency.
Baba Afzal directed his criticism towards two groups of people: 1. pretentious impure Sufis and the self-seeker pious-looking men; 2. the perplexed and the lost on the way to knowing Allah.