عنوان مقاله [English]
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) is a functional-structural theory in which syntactic structures are combined with semantic structures but the core part is the semantic structure. This paper aimed to analyze and describe different types of static structures in Arabic within the RRG and by using examples from the Holy Qur’an. Therefore, the data of this descriptive-analytic study was gathered from native speakers of Arabic and the text of the Holy Qur’an. First, different types of static structures in Arabic were explained using the evidence of the ayahs of the Holy Qur’an. Then, employing the means available in this grammar, that is, Van Valin and Lapolla's (1997) verb classification tests, static structures were determined. The results demonstrated that static structures in Arabic are divided into the following nine categories: attributives, possessives, defective verbs, emotive verbs, modal verbs, verbs to express wishes and hopes, exclamatory verbs, and verbs for praise or dispraise. Furthermore, it was found that out of the five tests in RRG, four have the required efficiency for identifying static structures. In other words, except for the test of progressive structure, other four tests including the application of adverbs related to the force of the action, application of adverbs having to do with speed, accompanying the adverb, e.g. for an hour, and accompanying the adverbs of time are efficient in Arabic.
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