عنوان مقاله [English]
Optimality theory is a fundamental constraint approach in the field of modern linguistics that was proposed in 1993 by Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky. Based on this theory, linguistic forms originate from the interaction between mutual and opposite restrictions that are the yardstick to distinguish the output arising from the original input. In this descriptive-analytical research, conformity of the criteria of optimality theory in documentary issues of some ayahs of Surah Al-Fatihah and Surah al- Baqarah centering on the book Maani al-Qur’an by Fara was analyzed. The results indicate that Qur’anic readings as well-founded and reference texts enjoy optimality at the level of lexical usage and representation. However, in accordance with common syntactic criteria, they have different levels of optimality. In examining the evidence of these two surahs, it became clear that the limitations of the reliability are observed and the marked infrangible limitation of fatal violations (*!) rarely occur. Also, most violations of restrictions are located at the places of non-fatal infrangible marked restrictions (*) and optimal outputs from the point of view of Fara are the outputs that justify the marfū reading of the evidence (shāhīd) of the ayah, which is influenced by Fara's tendency for marfū diacritic and his approach to the agency of the subject when it is used in the marfū form. Therefore, in predicative formations, he is more likely to use implicitation, deletion, and interpretation of the predicate. The non-fatal marked limitation of deletion and implicitation show the highest number of violations among the evidences of the ayahs.
- قرآن کریم
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